Thyroid disorders requiring surgery most commonly involve thyroid cancer. There are four types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The first two types, papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, are most common, comprising more than 95% of cases of thyroid cancer. Fortunately, these cancer types have a relatively high cure rate if caught early and treated with surgery. The surgery necessary to treat papillary or follicular thyroid cancer usually involves removal of the entire thyroid gland (this is called a “total thyroidectomy”). Sometimes an additional neck lymph node dissection is required. The extent of the cancer usually dictates whether a neck lymph node dissection is needed. Quite often additional post-surgical radioactive iodine treatment is needed if the cancer is widely spread throughout the thyroid and/or neck. Radioactive iodine therapy usually is given a few weeks following surgery, and is ordered and coordinated by the endocrinologist. The cure rate for most forms of thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular) if caught early can be well over 90% if treated promptly with proper treatment (surgery and possible post-operative radioactive iodine therapy). Find helpful information regarding ear neck and throat pain, ear neck and throat specialist, ear nose throat symptoms and more.